The etiology of the disease owing clear. Recent studies have considered the following factors :
1 , genetics studies suggest that there may Vitiligo is an autosomal dominant genetic skin disease. Foreign authors statistics 30% of patients had a positive family history was found in two monozygotic twins are sick. China reported a positive family history of 3% to 12 % lower than the foreign reports .
2 , autoimmune pathogenesis of autoimmune theory theory of vitiligo and more attention. Many scholars have noted that patients and their family members in the combined ratio higher autoimmune disease , a common thyroiditis , hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism , diabetes, chronic adrenal hypothyroidism , pernicious anemia , rheumatoid arthritis , malignant melanoma . The serum of patients with vitiligo , it was detected in a variety of organ -specific antibodies , such as anti- thyroid antibodies, anti- gastric parietal cell antibodies, anti- adrenal antibodies, anti- PTH antibody , anti-smooth muscle antibodies , and the detection rate was significantly higher . Also suffering autoimmune diseases , the incidence of vitiligo higher than the general population from 10 to 15 times . Vitiligo patients have recently been found to have anti- melanocyte cell surface antigens , known as vitiligo antibody titers and the degree of depigmentation of skin pigmentation related to patients , titers increased with expansion of the lesion area , vitiligo patients also found a similar animals phenomenon, the disease is an autoimmune disease melanocytes . Behl (1977) found that during the period of the white edge monocyte aggregates , invade the dermal -epidermal junction , by the destruction of the basement membrane into the epidermis , so that it melanocytes and melanosomes absent, that the disease may be delayed hypersensitivity autoimmune diseases. In addition , oral or topical corticosteroids, especially the effect is not by skin lesions better distribution section , the immune mechanism of the disease is also indirect evidence .
3 , spirit and neurochemical theory of many clinical scientists found that psychological factors are closely related to the pathogenesis of vitiligo , it is estimated that about 2/ 3 of the patients had onset of trauma or lesions in the development stage , excessive stress , depression or depressed. Tension can cause increased catecholamines , such as adrenaline can directly affect the bleaching ; Stress can also ACTH secretion, resulting in increased secretion of corticosteroids , and the mobilization of sugar and free fatty acids stimulate insulin secretion. Indirectly stimulate insulin- L- tryptophan increased the brain , the brain 5 - HT synthesis, while the 5 - serotonin metabolite of melatonin receptor hyperactivity pheomelanin play an important role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo . Melatonin receptor hyperactivity increase theophylline enzyme activity, inhibition of these enzymes and biochemical melanocytes , but later they make Mesozoic activation , resulting in toxic metabolic intermediates accumulation of melanin in melanocytes , making melanocytes death eventually lead vitiligo. Some scholars have observed that there is degeneration of nerve endings at the white , and the degree of change seems related with the course , this phenomenon is also supported neurochemical theory.
4 , melanocytes destroy themselves the basic theory of vitiligo lesions are part of epidermal melanocytes cells or complete loss of function. Lerner1971 put forward this theory . Vitiligo is considered its epidermal melanocytes hyperactivity, loss of promotion and the early decline , and may be due to the accumulation of toxic cells themselves synthesize melanin predecessor substances due. Experiments show that certain chemical substances on the damaging effects of melanocytes selective , skin bleaching, these substances are substituted phenols multiple chemical bleaching agents such as hydroquinone monomethyl ether , hydroquinone, Syria butyl phenol , hydrogen peroxide , etc. , both on the skin and hair have bleaching effect. In recent years, an increase in the incidence of vitiligo may be related to industrial development , accessibility of such chemicals increases related.
5 , trace element deficiency theory has been proposed to reduce the copper content in the body of the pathogenesis of vitiligo , but it seems that there was no significant difference in the determination of serum and hair copper content with the general population , the relevant trace elements theory needs further study.
6, Other factors include trauma, trauma, surgery , scratching , etc. can induce vitiligo. Certain endocrine diseases such as hyperthyroidism, diabetes, etc. , may be associated with vitiligo. Sunlight exposure prone vitiligo.
The incidence of vitiligo doctrine more, and there is a certain basis , but has a certain one-sidedness . Its incidence is currently considered genetic factors , but also in a variety of internal , external factor on the immune function , neural and endocrine and metabolic disorders , and many other functions , resulting in inhibition of enzyme systems , or destruction of melanocytes , or melanin obstacles that may cause skin depigmentation .
When the spirit is too nervous adrenaline increased consumption , the main synthetic adrenaline dopa , thus reducing the synthesis of melanin .
Reduce blood and skin in copper or ceruloplasmin levels in patients with vitiligo, resulting in reduced activity of tyrosinase , thus affecting the metabolism of melanin .
In addition to certain chemicals and drugs can also induce light sensitivity of the disease .